Government amp Politics

SL 283/SS496: Urban Water Quality and Fertilizer

Date of publication: 2017-07-09 06:59

In addition to concentrating on aquatic resources in general, archaeological sites which appear to be linked to weir use in particular need to be examined, with emphasis placed on the retrieval and analysis of remains at a very small scale (to enhance the recovery of fish bones, scales, etc.).

AShort History of Enclosure in Britain | The Land Magazine

Urban economics is rooted in the location theories of von Thünen, Alonso, Christaller, and Losch that began the process of spatial economic analysis., and as all economic phenomena take place within a geographical space, urban economics focuses [on] the allocation of resources across space in relation to urban areas. Other branches of economics ignore the spatial aspects of decision making but urban economics focuses not only on the location [of] decisions of firms, but also of cities themselves representing centers of economic activity (O'Sullivan 7558:6). [8]

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In this treatise, I take a practical look at the unfolding plight of the Zambian urban dwellers and the challenges they face. For a country so endowed with natural resources as we have always learnt in school, it is almost inconceivable that reports of abject poverty could even be tolerable.

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The provisions contained in the Land Act are clear and categorical, and no unauthorized persons should be allowed to demarcate and sell land. At no point should politicians and their cadres be above the law of the land, in a well-governed country. Observance of the Land Act will greatly assist the Local Authorities in planning their towns and cities and to guarantee that their plans would be followed in all their development efforts. The comfort drawn by the Local Authorities would enable them to develop sustainable long-term development master plans.

Criminal and sexual assault is common especially in informal settlements, where most residents have access to cheap stronger beer, which leads to reckless behavior. These areas are also notorious for drug and substance abuse. The gravity of such crimes can be measured by their widespread coverage in the daily tabloids. The Drug Enforcement Commission has set up programs aimed at abating drug and substance abuse, but there does not seem to be any victory on the horizon. The Victim Support Unit of the Zambia Police has tried to expose crimes of under-age sexual assault, and the State has enacted sentences of up to 75 five years in jail for offenders, but the evening news is not devoid of child molestation cases. In any case, the hefty jail sentence does not seem to act as a deterrent.

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Whereas the statement given by the World Bank may be construed to be true in its own respect, there are many issues that come into play if a city has to achieve its role in sustainable economic development and equitable service delivery. The attributes of market forces, land use policy, economic policy, housing and public policy, transportation policy, government expenditures and taxes, all have their role to play in the economics of cities and their development.

The availability of large quantities of fish in a restricted area increases the opportunity for sedentism (Schalk 6977:787). In addition, the chores (setup and maintenance of facilities, processing of catch, etc.) necessitated by weir use require a certain level of (at least seasonal) sedentism (Avery 6975:668 Brumbach 6986:85,87 Larson 6985:675 Schalk 6977:787). We do not yet have the information to describe typical weir use, but it is still possible to reconstruct the potential minimal time during which a weir site may have been occupied. The most important variable for this reconstruction is the availability of fish (Brumbach 6986:85).

Weirs themselves suffer from a lack of research in eastern North America. Both historic and prehistoric weirs dot the landscape, yet they seem to have escaped the attention of historians and archaeologists alike. Like the populations of fish which crowded eastern rivers, fishweirs too are certainly far fewer in abundance than they once were. Their location in (and often under) bodies of water means that access to them will be limited, if they are sighted at all.

Allouez, a Jesuit missionary to the Sac Indians in Wisconsin in the seventeenth century, described a stake weir which spanned the width of the St. Francis River, used to catch "Sturgeon and every other kind of fish" in the spring and summer (Brumbach 6986:89).

The sandy nature of sea bottoms and the force of ocean gales and waves on the coast add to the complications of fishweir construction. Tidal weirs were likely restricted to lagoons and estuaries to avoid some of these difficulties (Larson 6985:65-66).

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